All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Abstract The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion DD to a cultural diffusion CD model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing.
Soviet occupation of Romania When King Michaelsupported by the main political parties, overthrew Ion Antonescu in Augustbreaking Romania away from the Axis and bringing it over to the Allied side, Michael could do nothing to erase the memory of his country's recent active participation in the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
Romanian forces fought under Soviet command, driving through Northern Transylvania into Hungary proper, and on into Czechoslovakia and Austria.
However, the Soviets treated Romania as conquered territory,  and Soviet troops remained in the country as occupying forces under the pretext that Romanian authorities could not guarantee the security and stability of Northern Transylvania.
This changed in Marchwhen Dr. Petru Groza of the Ploughmen's Fronta party closely associated with the Communists, became prime minister. His government was broad-based on paper, including members of most major prewar parties except the Iron Guard.
However, the Communists held the key ministries, and most of the ministers nominally representing non-Communist parties were, like Groza himself, fellow travelers. The King was not happy with the direction of this government, but when he attempted to force Groza's resignation by refusing to sign any legislation a move known as "the royal strike"Groza simply chose to enact laws without bothering to obtain Michael's signature.
On 8 NovemberKing Michael's name daya pro-monarchy demonstration in front of the Royal Palace in Bucharest escalated into street fights between opposition supporters and soldiers, police and pro-government workers, resulting in dozens of killed and wounded; Soviet officers restrained Romanian soldiers and police from firing on civilians, and Soviet troops restored order.
However, it also brought the beginnings of Soviet domination of Romania. These elections were characterized by widespread irregularities, including intimidation, electoral fraud, and assassinations  Archives confirm suspicions at the time that the election results were, in fact, falsified.
A show trial of their leadership was then arranged, and they were put in jail. Other parties were forced to "merge" with the Communists.
In andseveral high-ranking members in the pro- Axis government were executed as war criminals, primarily for their involvement in the Holocaust and for attacking the Soviet Union. Antonescu himself was executed 1 June They presented him with a pretyped instrument of abdication and demanded that he sign it.
With pro-Communist troops surrounding his palace and his telephone lines cut, Michael was forced to sign the document. Hours later, Parliament abolished the monarchy and proclaimed Romania a People's Republic. However, the few remaining independent-minded Socialists were soon pushed out, and the merged party was the PCR with a new name.
Meanwhile, most non-Communist politicians had either been imprisoned or fled into exile. The new constitution was a near-copy of the Soviet Constitution.
It forbade and punished any association which had a "fascist or anti-democratic nature"—- which was broadly interpreted to ban any party not willing to do the Communists' bidding.
It also granted freedom of the press, speech and assembly for the working class. In the face of wide-scale killings, imprisonments and harassment of local peasants during forced collectivization, private-property nationalization and political oppression, the rights and freedoms spelled out in the Constitution of and its two successors in and were never respected by governments or the new judges appointed during the 42 years of undisguised Communist rule.
The role of religious bodies was strictly limited to their houses of worship, and large public demonstrations were strictly forbidden. Inin order to minimize the role of the clergy in society, the government adopted a decree nationalizing church property, including schools.
The early years of Communist rule in Romania were marked by repeated changes of course and by numerous arrests and imprisonments as factions contended for dominance. The country's resources were also drained by the Soviet's SovRom agreements, which facilitated shipping of Romanian goods to the Soviet Union at nominal prices.
On 11 Juneall banks and large businesses were nationalized. In the Communist leadership, there appear to have been three important factions, all of them Stalinistdifferentiated more by their respective personal histories than by any deep political or philosophical differences: Pauker and her allies were labeled as the "Muskovite [foreign] faction" and accused of deviating to the left and right.
For instance, they were initially allied on not liquidating the rural bourgeoise, but later shifted their position.
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej speaking at a workers' rally in Nation Square, Bucharest after the general election.The object of the analysis in this article is to explore the homogeneity of south-eastern European (SEE) countries (Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia and Hungary) according to performances of tourism industry develop-.
Eastern European Ethnicity. The Europe East region stretches from the Baltic Sea in the north to the borders of Greece in the south. Throughout history, the region has stood at the crossroads—and often in the crosshairs—of Europe and Central Asia. Sep 13, · Eastern Europe's resistance to taking in migrants is the latest evidence of the stubborn cultural and political divides that persist between East and West.
The Eastern European countries studied by the Passport to Trade project are: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovak Republic.
Similarities in Eastern European business culture. Business cultural norms when conducting business such as greeting a business partner, scheduling a meeting or gift giving are all very similar in nature across the.
Are you a Small or Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) or a student thinking of successfully establishing yourself in another European country and require assistance with cultural difference in business?If so, tranceformingnlp.com is here to help!
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Romanian: Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party communist rule that existed officially from to From to , the state was known as the Romanian People's Republic (Republica Populară Romînă, RPR).The country was a Soviet-aligned Eastern Bloc state with a dominant role for the Romanian Capital: Bucharest.