The painting portrays servants, musicians, monks, children, guests, and hosts all in a single social environment. It serves as an in-depth look into the Chinese social structure of the time.
Dramatic uses[ edit ] Catharsis is a term in dramatic art that describes the effect of tragedy or comedy and quite possibly other artistic forms  principally on the audience although some have speculated on characters in the drama as well. Nowhere does Aristotle explain the meaning of "catharsis" as he is using that term in the definition of tragedy in the Poetics b Else argues that traditional, widely held interpretations of catharsis as "purification" or "purgation" have no basis in the text of the Poeticsbut are derived from the use of catharsis in other Aristotelian and non-Aristotelian contexts.
The term is often discussed along with Aristotle's concept of anagnorisis. Lucas, in an authoritative edition of the Poetics, comprehensively covers the various nuances inherent in the meaning of the term in an Appendix devoted to "Pity, Fear, and Katharsis".
Lucas himself does not accept any one of these interpretations as his own but adopts a rather different one based on "the Greek doctrine of Humours" which has not received wide subsequent acceptance.
Purgation and purification, used in previous centuries, as the common interpretations of catharsis are still in wide use today. Purgation and purification[ edit ] In his works prior to the Poetics, Aristotle had used the term catharsis purely in its medical sense usually referring to the evacuation of the katamenia—the menstrual fluid or other reproductive material.
Lucas maintains, therefore, that purification and cleansing are not proper translations for catharsis; that it should rather be rendered as purgation.
Else made the following argument against the "purgation" theory: But there is not a word to support this in the "Poetics", not a hint that the end of drama is to cure or alleviate pathological states. On the contrary it is evident in every line of the work that Aristotle is presupposing 'normal' auditors, normal states of mind and feeling, normal emotional and aesthetic experience.
He translates catharsis as a purification, an experience that brings pity and fear into their proper balance: Intellectual clarification[ edit ] In the twentieth century a paradigm shift took place in the interpretation of catharsis with a number of scholars contributing to the argument in support of the intellectual clarification concept.
It is generally understood that Aristotle's theory of mimesis and catharsis are responses to Plato 's negative view of artistic mimesis on an audience. Plato argued that the most common forms of artistic mimesis were designed to evoke from an audience powerful emotions such as pity, fear, and ridicule which override the rational control that defines the highest level of our humanity and lead us to wallow unacceptably in the overindulgence of emotion and passion.
Aristotle's concept of catharsis, in all of the major senses attributed to it, contradicts Plato's view by providing a mechanism that generates the rational control of irrational emotions.
All of the commonly held interpretations of catharsis, purgation, purification, and clarification are considered by most scholars to represent a homeopathic process in which pity and fear accomplish the catharsis of emotions like themselves. For an alternate view of catharsis as an allopathic process in which pity and fear produce a catharsis of emotions unlike pity and fear, see E.
Aristotle on Plot and Emotion. Princeton,ff. Literary analysis of catharsis[ edit ] The following analysis by E. Doddsdirected at the character of Oedipus in the paradigmatic Aristotelian tragedy, Oedipus Rexincorporates all three of the aforementioned interpretations of catharsis: Oedipus might have left the plague to take its course; but pity for the sufferings of his people compelled him to consult Delphi.
When Apollo's word came back, he might still have left the murder of Laius uninvestigated; but piety and justice required him to act. He need not have forced the truth from the reluctant Theban herdsman; but because he cannot rest content with a lie, he must tear away the last veil from the illusion in which he has lived so long.
Teiresias, Jocasta, the herdsman, each in turn tries to stop him, but in vain; he must read the last riddle, the riddle of his own life. The immediate cause of Oedipus' ruin is not "fate or "the gods"—no oracle said that he must discover the truth—and still less does it lie in his own weakness; what causes his ruin is his own strength and courage, his loyalty to Thebes, and his loyalty to the truth.
For example, Bertolt Brecht viewed catharsis as a pap pabulum for the bourgeois theatre audience, and designed dramas which left significant emotions unresolved, intending to force social action upon the audience.
Brecht then identified the concept of catharsis with the notion of identification of the spectator, meaning a complete adhesion of the viewer to the dramatic actions and characters.The tragic flaw (or "hamartia") is an idea derived from Aristotle's "Poetics," which states that every tragic hero must have a major flaw that leads to his downfall.
Shakespeare's "Hamlet" creates a character whose flaws can be difficult to determine because they change over the course of the play.
Catharsis (from Greek κάθαρσις katharsis meaning "purification" or "cleansing") is the purification and purgation of emotions—particularly pity and fear—through art or any extreme change in emotion that results in renewal and restoration.
It is a metaphor originally used by Aristotle in the Poetics, comparing the effects of tragedy on the mind of a spectator to the effect of a.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given. Jeffrey Black has written an excellent summary of Aristolean and Shakespearan tragedy.
Here it is in its entirety: Elements of Shakesperean Tragedy. The Elements of Shakespearean Tragedy are a difficult subject. The most widely regarded view is that Shakespeare used the . Oedipus The Tragic Hero Of Oedipus Rex 's ' Oedipus ' - Although this argument can be supported using evidence from the text, Dodds, in his essay On Misunderstanding Oedipus Rex refutes this idea: that of Oedipus having a hamartia that seals his fate.
The Blood Angels are one of the 20 First Founding Legions of the Space Marines and were originally the IX Legion before the Second Founding broke the Legiones Astartes up into separate Chapters of Space Marines.
They are well-known across the galaxy for their bloodthirsty nature in battle.