Information About Traditional Art of Nigeria Travelers set to visit West Africa should prepare to experience rich cultural diversity, amazing festivals and fascinating local history. The various nations that make up this region are home to vibrant cultures rooted in music, singing, oral storytelling, historic dance and food. For foreign visitors to West Africa, it's also helpful to know as much as possible about local customs and etiquette practices, in order to be respectful and able to fully immerse yourself in the land. Cultural Traditions and Etiquette in West Africa It's important to be aware of local etiquette, cultural customs and other everyday social mores when visiting West Africa.
Classification[ edit ] The concept of institutional racism re-emerged in political discourse in the late and mid s after a long hiatus, but has remained a contested concept that has been critiqued by multiple constituencies. When the differential access becomes integral to institutions, it becomes common practice, making it difficult to rectify.
Eventually, this racism dominates public bodies, private corporations, public and private universities, and is reinforced by the actions of conformists and newcomers. Another difficulty in reducing institutionalized racism is that there is no sole, true identifiable perpetrator.
When racism is built into the institution, it emerges as the collective action of the population. Jones postulates three major types of racism: Internalized racism is the acceptance, by members of the racially stigmatized people, of negative perceptions about their own abilities and intrinsic worth, characterized by low self-esteemand low esteem of others like them.
This racism can be manifested through embracing "whiteness" e. Persistent negative stereotypes fuel institutional racism, and influence interpersonal relations.
Racial stereotyping contributes to patterns of racial residential segregation and redliningand shape views about crime, crime policy, and welfare policy, especially if the contextual information is stereotype-consistent. One example of the difference is public school budgets in the U.
Restrictive housing contracts and bank lending policies have also been listed as forms of institutional racism. Other examples sometimes described as institutional racism are racial profiling by security guards and police, use of stereotyped racial caricatures, the under- and misrepresentation of certain racial groups in the mass mediaand race-based barriers to gainful employment and professional advancement.
Additionally, differential access to goods, services, and opportunities of society can be included within the term institutional racism, such as unpaved streets and roads, inherited socio-economic disadvantage, and "standardized" tests each ethnic group prepared for it differently; many are poorly prepared.
These neighborhoods tended to be African American neighborhoods, whereas the white-middle-class Americans were able to receive housing loans. Over decades, as the white middle-class Americans left the city to move to nicer houses in the suburbs, the predominantly African American neighborhoods were left to degrade.
Retail stores also started moving to the suburbs to be closer to the customers. Moreover, many college students were then, in turn, financed with the equity in homeownership that was gained by having gotten the earlier government handout, which was not the same accorded to black and other minority families.
Poor consumers are left with the option of traveling to middle-income neighborhoods, or spending more for less. In the Social Security Act ofagricultural workers, servants, most of whom were black, were excluded because key white southerners did not want governmental assistance to change the agrarian system.
Between andless than 2 percent of government-subsidized housing went to non-white people. But it failed to change the status quo as the United States remained nearly segregated as in the s. A newer discriminating lending practice was the subprime lending in the s.
Lenders targeted high-interest subprime loans to low-income and minority neighborhoods who might be eligible for fair-interest prime loans. Securitization, mortgage brokers and other non-deposit lenders, and legislative deregulation of the mortgage lending industry all played a role in promoting the subprime lending market.
The bank had been accused of steering clear of minority neighborhoods and favoring white suburban borrowers in granting loans and mortgages, finding that of the approximately mortgages made in only 25 went to black applicants.
This followed other successful efforts by the federal, state and city officials in to expand lending programs directed at minorities, and in some cases to force banks to pay penalties for patterns of redlining in Providence, R. The Justice Dept also has more active redlining investigations underway,  and officials have stated to reporters that "redlining is not a thing of the past".
It has evolved into a more politically correct version, where bankers do not talk about denying loans to blacks openly. The justice department officials noted that some banks have quietly institutionalized bias in their operations.
They have moved their operations out of minority communities entirely, while others have moved in to fill the void and compete for clients. The effect on minority communities can be profound as home ownership, a prime source of neighborhood stability and economic mobility can affect its vulnerability to blight and disrepair.
In the s and s laws were passed banning the practice; its return is far less overt, and while the vast majority of banks operate legally, the practice appears to be more widespread as the investigation revealed a vast disparity in loans approved for blacks vs whites in similar situations.
The public spaces allow for social interactions, increase the likelihood of daily exercise in the community and improve mental health.
They can also reduce the urban heat island effectprovide wildlife habitat, control floods, and reduce certain air pollutants. Minority groups have less access to decision-making processes that determine the distribution of parks. Race and health in the United States and Environmental racism Institutional racism impacts health care accessibility within non-white minority communities by creating health disparities among racial groups.May 30, · West African traditions are rich, varied and often rooted in oral storytelling, local music, historic dance, food and singing.
Travelers should be aware of local dining customs, social norms and. Arrange trade treaties with African leaders, initially tried to rule Africa remotely. Then set up colonies and drew new boundaries on the continent to claim more land. Took over natural resources in the Congo.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa. West Africa has been defined as including 17 countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, the island nation of Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, the islands of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo.
At K=9, distinct ancestral components defined the Afrosiatic-speaking populations inhabiting North Africa and Northeast Africa; the Nilo-Saharan-speaking populations in Northeast Africa and East Africa; the Ari populations in Northeast Africa; the Niger-Congo-speaking populations in West-Central Africa, West Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa; the Pygmy populations in Central Africa; and the Khoisan .
West African musical traditions are rich and varied in and of themselves and have had a profound impact on the course of musical developments worldwide over the past several centuries. This was the region of the continent from which most African slaves were brought to the Americas.
Institutional racism is a form of racism expressed in the practice of social and political institutions. Institutional racism is also racism by individuals or informal social groups, governed by behavioral norms that support racist thinking and foment active racism.
It is reflected in disparities regarding wealth, income, criminal justice, employment, .