Persian metres The terminology for metrical system used in classical and classical-style Persian poetry is the same as that of Classical Arabic, even though these are quite different in both origin and structure. This has led to serious confusion among prosodists, both ancient and modern, as to the true source and nature of the Persian metres, the most obvious error being the assumption that they were copied from Arabic. Anceps positions in the line, however, that is places where either a long or short syllable can be used marked "x" in the schemes beloware not found in Persian verse except in some metres at the beginning of a line. Persian poetry is written in couplets, with each half-line hemistich being syllables long.
Linguistics[ edit ] Epithets are sometimes attached to a person's name or appear in place of his or her name, as what might be described as Cultural values in beowulf glorified nickname or sobriquet.
An epithet is linked to its noun by long-established usage. Not every adjective is an epithet.
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An epithet is especially recognizable when its function is largely decorative, such as if "cloud-gathering Zeus" is employed other than in reference to conjuring up a storm. Among other things, they are extremely helpful to fill out a half-verse", Walter Burkert has noted.
The same epithet can be used repeatedly joined to different names, e.
Alexander the Great as well as Constantine the Great. Other epithets can easily be omitted without serious risk of confusion, and are therefore known again in Latin as epitheton ornans.
Thus the classical Roman author Virgil systematically called his main hero pius Aeneas, the epithet being pius, which means religiously observant, humble and wholesome, as well as calling the armsbearer of Aeneas fidus Achates, the epithet being fidus, which means faithful or loyal. There are also specific types of epithets, such as the kenning which appears in works such as Beowulf.
An example of a kenning would be using the term whale-road instead of the word "sea". Literature[ edit ] Epithets are characteristic of the style of ancient epic poetrynotably in that of Homer or the northern European sagas see above, as well as Epithets in Homer.
When James Joyce uses the phrase "the snot-green sea" he is playing on Homer's familiar epithet "the wine-dark sea". The phrase "Discreet Telemachus" is also considered an epithet.
The Greek term antonomasiain rhetoric, means Cultural values in beowulf any epithet or phrase for a proper name, as Pelides, signifying the "son of Peleus", to identify Achilles. An opposite substitution of a proper name for some generic term is also sometimes called antonomasia, as a Cicero for an orator.
The use of a father's name or ancestor's name, such as "Pelides" in the case of Achilles, or "Saturnia" in the case of the goddess Juno in Vergil's Aeneid, is specifically called a patronymic device and is in its own class of epithet.
In William Shakespeare 's play Romeo and Julietepithets are used in the prologue, used in "star-cross'd lovers" and "death-mark'd love.
They originated to simply serve the purpose of dealing with names that were hard to pronounce or just unpleasant. Religion[ edit ] In many polytheistic religions, such as those of ancient Greece and Rome, a deity's epithets generally reflected a particular aspect of that god's essence and role, for which his influence may be obtained for a specific occasion: Apollo Musagetes is " Apollo[as] leader of the Muses " and therefore patron of the arts and sciences  while Phoibos Apollo is the same deity, but as shining sun-god.
A localizing epithet refers simply to a particular center of veneration and the cultic tradition there, as the god manifested at a particular festival, for example: Often the epithet is the result of fusion of the Olympian divinity with an older one: Poseidon ErechtheusArtemis Orthiareflect intercultural equations of a divinity with an older one, that is generally considered its pendant; thus most Roman gods and goddesses, especially the Twelve Olympianshad traditional counterparts in Greek, Etruscan, and most other Mediterranean pantheons, such as Jupiter as head of the Olympian Gods with Zeusbut in specific cults there may be a different equation, based on one specific aspect of the divinity.
Thus the Greek word Trismegistos: Among the Greeks, T. Price notes  the nurturing power of Kourotrophos might be invoked in sacrifices and recorded in inscription, without specifically identifying Hera or Demeter.
Some epithets were applied to several deities of a same pantheon rather accidentally if they had a common characteristic, or deliberately, emphasizing their blood- or other ties; thus in pagan Rome, several divinities gods, and heroes were given the epitheton Comes as companion of another usually major divinity.
An epithet can even be meant for collective use, e.
Some epithets resist explanation. These descriptive phrases can be used in a positive or negative way that benefits the orator. The use of persuasive wording gives leverage to one's arguments. Knowledge along with descriptive words or phrases can be a powerful tool.
This is supported in Bryan Short's article when he states, "The New Rhetoric derives its empiricist flavor from a pervasive respect for clarity and directness of language. Orators have a variety of epithets that they can employ that have different meanings. The most common are fixed epithets and transferred epithets.
A fixed epithet is the repetitive use of the same word or phrase for the same person or object. A transferred epithet qualifies a noun other than the person or thing it is describing.
This is also known as a hypallage. This can often involves shifting a modifier from the animate to the inanimate; for example, "cheerful money"and "suicidal sky". Orators take special care when using epithets as to not use them as smear words.
Orators could be accused of racial or abusive epithets if used incorrectly. In the past century, [epithet] blossomed as 'a word of abuse,' today gleefully seized upon to describe political smears.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
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The core values of the Heroic Code can be seen clearly in the poem.