Dating back to BC, they are considered to be among the oldest human statues ever found. At its height, around BC, it had an area of 15 hectares 37 acres and was inhabited by ca. At that time the site was a typical aceramic Neolithic village. Its houses were rectangular mud-bricked buildings that included a main square living room, whose walls were made up of lime plaster.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The purpose of this study was to explore environmental factors that hinder, and available services that facilitate, the daily functioning of Jordanian individuals with multiple sclerosis MS as perceived by the patients themselves.
A sample of Jordanian individuals with MS completed a questionnaire on hindering environmental factors and facilitative services. Environmental factors that were reported by the participants to be most hindering to their daily functioning were stores and malls Moreover, the participants reported that psychological services were the least available facilitative services in the community Weak-to-moderate but significant correlations were found between a number of demographic variables and perceived hindering factors.
The study results indicate that hindering factors, facilitative services, and demographic variables should be given greater attention by rehabilitation practitioners especially occupational therapists when planning intervention programs for Jordanian individuals with MS.
Multiple sclerosis MS is a devastating chronic neurologic disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. According to the terminology used by the ICF, assessment conducted for patients with MS traditionally includes detecting impairment in body functions and structures, either physical eg, fatigue, weakness, poor balance, pain or cognitive eg, difficulties in memory and executive functions.
It also includes assessing limitations in daily activities eg, functional mobility, self-care, work, leisurerestrictions on participation eg, involvement in interpersonal relations and social eventsand contextual factors eg, physical and social environment. Thus the ICF systematic representation of human functioning can be a helpful guide for physicians and therapists not only in assessment but also when planning medical and rehabilitative interventions for people with MS.
Occupational therapists typically use this systematic approach because holistic treatment is a core concept in both traditional and contemporary occupational therapy theories and practice worldwide.
The healthier and more functional the individual is, the less likely he or she is to be affected by the disabling factors in the environment. On the other hand, the more disabled the individual is, the more likely he or she is to be affected by such disabling environmental factors.
Several studies have been conducted to explore ICF environmental factors in different disease populations, 1920 but only one study by Prodinger et al. The study used a cross-sectional survey to describe patient-perceived disability in relation to ICF environmental factors in community-dwelling individuals with MS.
The results showed that products related to mobility eg, regular carsattitudes of immediate and extended family, and limited social and health-care resources were the most hindering environmental factors with regard to functional activities such as mobility, work, household activities, and social life participation.
The ICF includes both aspects of the physical environment and societal attitudes as integral parts of the environment, and it is clear that certain factors such as economy, policies, and social norms will vary tremendously across different countries and cultures.
For instance, developing countries such as those in the Middle East tend to have fewer resources in terms of the economy, research, and health-care systems compared with developed countries such as the United States. Moreover, great differences may be found across developed and developing countries in terms of societal beliefs about health and disability, traditions, norms, and religious orientation.
Accordingly, the effect of environment in countries with limited resources is especially important for occupational therapists both locally and internationally in their research and clinical practice.
Not only is research on the effect of the environment on daily functioning of individuals with MS scarce worldwide, but no such studies have been reported in developing countries, where medical and health-care resources tend to be less available, especially for those with chronic illnesses such as MS.
Thus such a study was conducted in Jordan, a developing Middle Eastern country with a population of 6 million. Jordan has limited health-care resources given that the sector has a budget of only 7. Also, like other Arabic countries, Jordan features a culture that is family-oriented and conservative in terms of traditions, religion, and social habits.
Therefore, a person with MS in Jordan may be greatly affected by a number of environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of environmental factors described in the ICF on the daily functioning of Jordanian individuals with MS as perceived by the patients themselves.
Methods Participants A convenience sample of individuals with MS was recruited from the Jordan Society for Multiple Sclerosis to participate in this study.
What is a conceptual framework? How do you prepare one? This article defines the meaning of conceptual framework and lists the steps on how to prepare it. Commercial aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) is an essential requirement to ensure that aircraft are maintained in pre-determined conditions of airworthiness to safely transport. The aims of this study are to analyze and explore the impacts of Jordanian businesses from the foreign investors and multinational companies, especially Airline industries that have decided to operate in Jordan Market. These impacts include economic, cultural, Political and legal. The questionnaire.
The society is a nonprofit national association that advocates for the rights of MS patients from all regions in Jordan and provides basic services for its members such as medical insurance, medications, and some rehabilitation services eg, physical therapy sessions. People with MS from all Jordanian regions are represented in the society.
Ethical approval for conducting the study was obtained from the Scientific Research Committee of the society. The inclusion criteria for participants were an official diagnosis of MS made at least 6 months previously, and the ability to comprehend and respond to questions in the questionnaire.
The exclusion criteria were the presence or comorbidity of other chronic physical illness or disability eg, stroke or spinal cord injurya diagnosis of mental illness, psychotic symptoms, or severe cognitive impairment. The Questionnaire A questionnaire was distributed to the study participants to explore two issues.
The first issue was the extent to which individuals perceived certain environmental factors as hindering to their daily functioning. Then, the panel discussed and agreed on possible relevant factors and services in the Jordanian community that were consistent with the content of each chapter.
For each chapter, a number of phrases describing specific examples of environmental factors were listed, and the study participants were asked to evaluate the hindering effect of these factors on daily functioning eg, mobility, self-care. Open in a separate window Part 1:Environmental Factors Affecting the Daily Functioning of Jordanian Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis Razan Hamed, PhD, OTR From the Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
The aims of this study are to analyze and explore the impacts of Jordanian businesses from the foreign investors and multinational companies, especially Airline industries that have decided to operate in Jordan Market.
These impacts include economic, cultural, Political and legal. The questionnaire. Vol.7, No.3, May, Mathematical and Natural Sciences. Study on Bilinear Scheme and Application to Three-dimensional Convective Equation (Itaru Hataue and Yosuke Matsuda).
What Are The Environmental Factors That Affect Business? Follow Upvote Competitors can be called the close rivals and in order to survive the competition one has to keep a close look in the market and formulate its policies and strategies as such to face There are various environmental factors which can impact the businesses in an.
and impact a mong Jordanian listed firms: The moderating market and streamlining purchasing processes. Despite these benefits, the Jeyaraj et al.,  defined environmental factors as exterior elements that are out of the firm’s top management control.
Researchers found the environmental factors influence to adopt and. Amman (English: / ɑː ˈ m ɑː n /; Arabic: عمّان ʻammān pronounced) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Situated in north-central Jordan, Amman is the administrative centre of the Amman tranceformingnlp.com city has a population of 4,, and a land area of 1, square kilometres ( square miles).