Autonomy Ethical Analysis Autonomy can be defined as self-determination, self-rule, or self-governance. Autonomous agents or actions presuppose some capacity of reasoning, deciding, and willing. Moral, social, and legal norms establish obligations to respect autonomous agents and their choices. Respect for personal autonomy implies that agents have the right or power to be self-governing and self-directing, without outside control.
The choices I will be talking about have to do with biotechnology and genetic engineering, choices which we are currently not making consciously because we really don't know what is going on. I would like to tell you what is going on in these areas, and then talk about how we might approach this matter in ethical ways.
First, allow me to give you some examples of current activities in the field of genetic engineering. Most of it has to do with producing genetically engineered plants, primarily food plants, but also cotton tobacco, and some others, which are resistant to pesticides, so that the pesticide manufacturers can make more money on their products.
A second example is biowarfare. There is widespread consensus that the information reported in that article is true.
One of the things he mentions is that the former Soviet Union had the largest big-warfare program in the world, with 32, scientists working on it.
Much of it had to do with genetic engineering. In one of the projects they took smallpox, which has otherwise disappeared from the world, and found a way to genetically introduce into it, without reducing its efficacy as smallpox, either Ebola virus or equine encephalitis viruses.
Nobody seems to know what happened to those experimental viruses. The idea is that we will no longer need to depend so much on petroleum, or on the Middle East for petroleum. The problem here, of course, is that the engineered plants cross-fertilize with their wild brethren, and since none of genetic changes is recallable, we can only hope that we will not one day take walks in the outdoors and be surrounded by flora which are exuding plastic and poisoning the fauna.
You can now be a vegetarian and a cannibal at the same time! In Canada geneticists are putting human genes into fish to make them grow faster.
And several companies are racing to place human genes into pigs in order to genetically match them to human individuals; that means that you can have your own organ donor pig, an animal whose organs will not be rejected by your body.
Now allow me to suggest what we might do about all this. First we must realize that just feeling disturbed by such projects is not enough. If we are to take any effective action, to make any useful decision, we must begin with some clear understanding of the issues involved; we must develop cogent intellectual viewpoint about genetic engineering and how to approach it.
There are, of course, many viewpoints, but let me mention just three. First, the view of science and technology as they serve international corporate profit, which is where we find most science and technology.
This basically amoral, aspiritual perspective is dominant today because so much money is involved. The corporations involved control more money than any government on the planet, including our own.
This is a closed system view of physical reality, and nothing outside the system is considered real or meaningful. The second and third viewpoints I want to mention are both spiritual, one from the Christian tradition, the other from Buddhism.
Ted Peters, a professor at Pacific Lutheran Theological seminary, is an advocate of this view. He says, It is worth noting that virtually all Roman Catholics and Protestants who take up the challenge of the new genetic knowledge seem to agree on a handful of theological axioms.
First, they affirm that God is the creator of the world, and further that God's creative work is ongoing. Second, the human race is created in God's image.
In this context, the divine image in humanity is tied to creativity. God creates, so do we. With surprising frequency, we humans are described by theologians as 'co-creators with God,' making our contribution to the evolutionary process.Is Genetic Engineering Ethically Right Philosophy Essay.
Print Reference this. Disclaimer: Another type of genetic engineering is genetic modification of embryo also known as designer baby. In genetic engineering ethical issues involved.
Ethics. Social, Legal, and Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing Each new genetic test that is developed raises serious issues for medicine, public health, and social policy regarding the circumstances under which the test should be used, how the test is implemented, and what uses are made of its results.
To consider the ethical issues against the use of genetic engineering on food items, it is necessary to mention the opposing side and their points of argument at first and then lay down my expository and productive counteracting points on the proposing side. Ethical Issues Surrounding Genetic Screening and Genetic Engineering In today’s modern age science is moving at a rapid pace; one of those scientific fields that has taken the largest leaps is that of genetics.
Essay on Unraveling the Issues of Compensated Organ Donations More about Thoughts and Ethical Issues Surrounding Organ . Mar 29, · The biotechnology of genetic engineering has created a broad spectrum of ethical issues, ranging from genetically modified organisms, as in crops, to animal and human cloning, genetic screening for diseases, prenatal and preimplantation diagnosis of human embryos, xenotransplantation, and gene replacement therapy.
To consider the ethical issues against the use of genetic engineering on food items, it is necessary to mention the opposing side and their points of argument at first and then lay down my expository and productive counteracting points on the proposing side.