Share via Email After living in fear for so long, coming out had been hugely liberating, but I gradually forgot that as I addressed the many challenges it raised.
Among the most popular variations of the social constructionist theories is Gender performance gender role theory, considered by Alsop, Fitzsimons and Lennon as an early form of social constructionism. The focus on power and hierarchy reveals inspiration stemming from a Marxist framework, utilized for instance by materialist feminism, and Foucault's writings on discourse.
Social constructionismbriefly, is the concept that there are many things that people "know" or take to be "reality" that are at least partially, if not completely, socially situated.
Examples include money, tenurecitizenshipdecorations for bravery, and the presidency of the United States. Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge. Social constructionism focuses on how meaning is created. Emerging from the criticism of objectivitysocial constructionism challenges concepts of knowledge put forward by positivismwhich postulates the externality of reality and that empirically-proved truths are mind-independent.
Knowledge is a social product. Power and hierarchy underlie social construction. This focus results in showing how individuals differ in status, entitlement, efficacy, self-respect and other traits based on the kind of interactions one is involved in and subjected to.
Language is at the core of knowledge. Language is considered the building block of culture; it conveys meaning and creates the system of knowledge humans participate in. Ultimately, language has a huge influence on how humans perceive reality and, as a result, is the creator of this reality.
Social construction is a dynamic process. Social constructionists emphasize the complexity of how knowledge is created in social interactions. Knowledge and meanings are not stable or constant; they are co-constructed in interactions with others, negotiated, modified and shifted.
People are active in their perception, understanding and sharing of knowledge acquired from their social milieu. It is prudent therefore to consider this process when explaining the social construction of knowledge, including knowledge concerning gender.
The individual and society are indissoluble. Social constructionists question the Western idea of an autonomous individual who can draw a clear line between the self and the society.
According to social constructionism, individuals can create meaning only in relation to what they are exposed to in their environment. Paradoxically, the same individuals co-create the meanings that are available in this environment.
They also argue that both the materialist and discursive theories of social construction of gender can be either essentialist or non-essentialist. This means that some of these theories assume a clear biological division between women and men when considering the social creation of masculinity and femininity, while other contest the assumption of the biological division between the sexes as independent of social construction.
Gender Gender, according to West and Zimmerman, is not a personal trait; it is "an emergent feature of social situations: Contemporary constructionist perspective, as proposed by Fenstermaker and West, proposes treating gender as an activity "doing" of utilizing normative prescriptions and beliefs about sex categories based on situational variables.
These "gender activities" constitute our belonging to a sex as based on the socially accepted dichotomy of "women" and "men". It is noted, however, that these activities are not always perceived by the audience as being either "masculine" or "feminine", they are at constant risk of being assessed as more or less "womanly" or "manly"; ultimately, any behavior may be judged based upon its "manly" or "womanly" nature.
This in turn points to the situational nature of gender rather than its inherent, essentialist and individual nature. Gender roles[ edit ] Gender roles are often centred around the conceptions of femininity or masculinity. In our society today, women are socialized as being the caretakers of the house, who nurture the children, cook and clean.
With men, they "should" be the workhorse, the provider, protector, a leader, and a teacher to his family. Levant and Kathleen Alto write: A recent synthesis of meta-analytic studies of gender differences provides strong evidence for a social construct understanding of gender.Gender is a performance and like any performance there are costumes, lines, mannerisms, etc.
that you embody to perform the role. The rules of gender performance are so clear and present throughout society that even my 5 year old can recite them. The gender fluidity we saw throughout the movie, and the emphasis on stage performance both led us to the conclusion that even though sex is biological and gender is performed, the ability to perform gender is something that must be earned.
Gender Performance Initiative If a financial institution is committed to serving women, it needs to know how well it is meeting the needs of women. Women’s World Banking developed the Gender Performance Indicators, an evaluation framework that defines the key metrics that financial service providers need to measure to know how effectively.
The question of gender performance is related to ideas of gender identity in society, whereby certain codes of behaviour are assigned according to gender. There is an initial essentialist view of social identity whereby gender is determined biologically and gender is an immutable and recognizable physical essence.
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Gender is Performance according to Judith Butler What is Gender? Performance Perfomance According to Butler "The way we talk, walk, perform certain rituals etc., acts that we all keep on performing through the course of our lives, and this performance in what constitutes the meaning of masculine of feminine identities.".