It addresses four important issues arising from the former land tenure systems in Nigeria:
Nigeria Table of Contents Throughout Africa societies that had been predominantly rural for most of their history were experiencing a rapid and Various land use in nigeria urban reorientation of their social and economic lives toward cities and urbanism.
As ever greater numbers of people moved to a small number of rapidly expanding cities or, as was often the case, a single main citythe fabric of life in both urban and rural areas changed in massive, often unforeseen ways.
With the largest and one of the most rapidly growing cities in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria has experienced the phenomenon of urbanization as thoroughly as any African nation, but its experience has also been unique--in scale, in pervasiveness, and in historical antecedents.
Modern urbanization in most African countries has been dominated by the growth of a single primate city, the political and commercial center of the nation; its emergence was, more often than not, linked to the shaping of the country during the colonial era.
In countries with a coastline, this was often a coastal port, and in Nigeria, Lagos fitted well into this pattern. Unlike most other nations, however, Nigeria had not just one or two but several other cities of major size and importance, a number of which were larger than most other national capitals in Africa.
In two areas, the Yoruba region in the southwest and the Hausa-Fulani and Kanuri areas of the north, there were numbers of cities with historical roots stretching back considerably before the advent of British colonizers, giving them distinctive physical and cultural identities.
Moreover, in areas such as the Igbo region in the southeast, which had few urban centers before the colonial period and was not highly urbanized even at independence, there has been a massive growth of newer cities since the s, so that these areas in were also highly urban.
Cities are not only independent centers of concentrated human population and activity; they also exert a potent influence on the rural landscape. What is distinctive about the growth of cities in Nigeria is the length of its historical extension and the geographic pervasiveness of its coverage.
Historical Development of Urban Centers Nigerian urbanism, as in other parts of the world, is a function primarily of trade and politics. They attracted large numbers of traders and migrants from their own hinterlands and generally also included "stranger quarters" for migrants of other regions and nations.
In the south, the rise of the Yoruba expansionist city-states and of Benin and others was stimulated by trade to the coast, and by competition among these growing urban centers for the control of their hinterlands and of the trade from the interior to the Atlantic including the slave trade.
The activities of European traders also attracted people to such coastal cities as Lagos, Badagri, Brass, and Bonny, and later Calabar and Port Harcourt.
Overlying the original features of the earlier cities were those generated by colonial and postcolonial rule, which created new urban centers while also drastically altering the older ones. All these cities and peri-urban areas generally tended to have high population densities.
The northern savanna cities grew within city walls, at the center of which were the main market, government buildings, and the central mosque.
Around them clustered the houses of the rich and powerful. Smaller markets and denser housing were found away from this core, along with little markets at the gates and some cleared land within the gates that was needed especially for siege agriculture.
Groups of specialized craft manufacturers cloth dyers, weavers, potters, and the like were organized into special quarters, the enterprises often being family-based and inherited. Roads from the gates ran into the central market and the administrative headquarters. Cemeteries were outside the city gates.
The concentration of wealth, prestige, political power, and religious learning in the cities attracted large numbers of migrants, both from the neighboring countryside and from distant regions.
This influx occasioned the building of additional sections of the city to accommodate these strangers. In many of the northern cities, these areas were separated between sections for the distant, often non-Muslim migrants not subject to the religious and other prohibitions of the emir, and for those who came from the local region and were subjects of the emir.
The former area was designated the "Sabon Gari," or new town which in southern cities, such as Ibadan, has often been shortened to "Sabo"while the latter was often known as the "Tudun Wada," an area often quite wealthy and elaborately laid out.
To the precolonial sections of the town was often added a government area for expatriate administrators. The result was that many of the northern cities have grown from a single centralized core to being polynucleated cities, with areas whose distinctive character reflected their origins, and the roles and position of their inhabitants.
Surrounding many of the large, older northern cities, including Kano, Sokoto, and Katsina, there developed regions of relatively dense rural settlement where increasingly intensive agriculture was practiced to supply food and other products to the urban population.
These areas have come to be known as close settled zones, and they were of major importance to the agricultural economies of the north.
By the inner close settled zone around Kano, and the largest of its kind, extended to a radius of about thirty kilometers, essentially the limit of a day trip to the city on foot or by donkey. Within this inner zone, there has long been a tradition of intensive interaction between the rural and urban populations, involving not just food but also wood for fuel, manure, and a range of trade goods.
There has also been much land investment and speculation in this zone. Within this zone, the great majority of usable land was under annual rainy season or continuous irrigated cultivation, making it one of the most intensively cultivated regions in sub-Saharan Africa.
In the south, there were some similarities of origin and design in the forest and southern savanna cities of Yorubaland, but culture, landscape, and history generated a very different character for most of these cities.
As in the north, the earlier Yoruba towns often centered around the palace of a ruler, or afin, which was surrounded by a large open space and a market. This arrangement was still evident in older cities such as Ife.
However, many of the most important contemporary Yoruba cities, including the largest, Ibadan, were founded during the period of the Yoruba wars in the first half of the nineteenth century. Reflecting their origins as war camps, they usually contained multiple centers of power without a single central palace.
Instead, the main market often assumed the central position in the original town, and there were several separate areas of important compounds established by the major original factions.During the s Nigeria had possibly the fastest urbanization growth rate in the world.
Because of the great influx of people into urban areas, the growth rate of urban population in Nigeria in was estimated to be close to 6 percent per year, more than twice that of the rural population. the growth rate of urban population in Nigeria. 3 contrast, in southern Nigeria, the second system recognised that land was owned by lineages or extended families.
Individuals have only right of use on such family land. Derelict Lands and Urban Land Use in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Olusegun Oriye In the process of urban expansion, there occurs a land use/land cover change that exposes some hills, rocks and burths. A striking aspect of the distribution of “potentially available cropland” is that, from a regional perspective, much of Africa’s unutilized arable land is found in just a few countries (Chamberlin et al., , Deininger et al., ).Depending upon the definitions and assumptions used, as much as 90% of SSA’s unutilized arable land is located in just 6–8 countries ().
The various economic activities encouraged population growth. complexities of land use that have outpaced management.
Urban Planners and managers would have an .
The Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty organized by the World Bank Development Economic Research Group (DECRG) is a key global event where representatives from governments, civil society, academia, the development community, and the private sector come together annually to discuss new developments and progress on land policy and implementation.