During the s, Venezuela was, engaged in an activist foreign policy that was perceived as driven by efforts to foster democracy and coun- ter communist inluence in the region. In fact, while generally pro-West and pro-US, Venezuela was also a strong supporter of third world efforts at economic reform in the United Nations UNa proactive advocate of This chapter was translated from the Spanish by Jacqueline Braveboy-Wagner. Some of the material appeared in an earlier book see Serbin On the other hand, notwithstanding its oil wealth, Venezuela has long had an Achilles heel in the unequal distribution of that wealth and the persistence of large pockets of poverty.
Three Approaches to Center of Gravity Analysis: Heiland Since its inception as a core planning tenet, the process for determining COGs has been a point of contention and debate. Speculation on proper COG determination has given rise to other COG methodologies, which have both questioned and challenged established doctrine for COG determination.
Therefore, the objective of this article is to compare and contrast different COG determination methodologies to reveal strengths and weaknesses of each and ultimately to make recommendations for changes to joint doctrine. When ISIL initiated large-scale offensive operations into Iraq in early Juneit propelled itself onto the global stage.
While other contemporary Islamic militant groups have stated similar objectives for establishing an Islamic caliphate,4 ISIL is unique in that it has made significant progress in pursuit of that goal by seizing control of large amounts of territory in Iraq and Syria.
With manning estimated at around 20, to 31,5 ISIL has been forcefully seizing territory in a conventional military fashion while still sometimes employing contemporary insurgency-type tactics.
In doing so, ISIL has been acquiring more supplies and sources of revenue to fuel its operations. Identify the ways to achieve the ends, and select the one that evidence suggests is most likely to work. Ways are actions, so they are expressed as verbs.
Then select the most elemental or essential action—that selection is the critical capability. The ways are critical actions that will achieve the endstate.
Critical capabilities CC are the same verbs expressed in the ways; therefore, ways equal critical capabilities. List the means critical requirements needed to enable and execute the ways critical capabilities.
Select from the list of means the entity noun that possesses the innate way CC to tangibly achieve the end.
This selection is the center of gravity. From the remaining items on the list, select those that are critical for the execution of the critical capability, which are the critical requirements. Complete the process by identifying those critical requirements vulnerable to adversary actions.
An example is the game of football. The grand strategic objective is to win a championship. Other strategic objectives are winning games or winning a division. Operational objectives are to score touchdowns. Tactical objectives are scoring first downs. Strategically, coaches and their supporting staffs are the means necessary to manage, organize, train, and supply a football team.
Operationally, the means are, but are not limited to, adequate equipment, practices, physical training facilities, morale, and the players themselves. From the list, only the players can run, pass, catch, and execute plays—they are the operational COG. The coaches possess the inherent capability to decide which players will play run, pass, and so forth ; therefore, they are the strategic COG.
While these requirements are essential, they are not centers of gravity. Opposition in Syria and Iraq military and civilian must be neutralized or destroyed. Adequate revenue to establish sufficient commerce for governance and funding must be gained and maintained with oil as the main resource.
ISIL fighters are estimated to number around 20,—31, ISIL has attained large amounts of assault rifles, machine guns, rocket-propelled grenades, surface-to-air missiles, other antiarmor weapons, artillery, tanks, light vehicles, armored personnel carriers, antiaircraft weaponry, and various other rocket-launcher systems.
ISIL has a clear leader with a well-structured cabinet and subordinate leadership. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi is the declared caliph, and he has a cabinet of advisors that includes two deputy leaders, one for Iraq and one for Syria.
There are also 12 local governors with supporting staffs. Islamic ideology is one morale factor that ISIL leadership uses for recruitment and for exploiting common demographics and psychosociological factors found in many members of terrorist organizations.
Some recruits are thrill-seekers, while some join only for personal gain.JFQ 78, 3rd Quarter Smith, Jeter, and Westgaard Three Approaches to Center of Gravity Analysis The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant By Daniel J. Smith, Kelley Jeter, and Odin Westgaard. The gravity equation in international trade is one of the most robust empirical finding in economics: bilateral trade between two countries is proportional to size, measured by GDP, and inversely proportional to the geographic distance between them.
While the role of size is well understood, the. As one analyst close to chavismo put it, “While the ‘military wing’ is not the only center of gravity in the Bolivarian political process, for a decade and a half it has been involved in all that happens in the state, in the government, in the chavista movement, and in the left in Venezuela” (Guerrero 75).
Location Analysis Techniques We will discuss three techniques to help a location decision--the location rating factor, the center-of-gravity technique, and the load-distance technique. The location factor rating mathematically evaluates location factors, such as those identified in the previous section.
Venezuela's Center of Gravity Analysis - Using the PMESII framework to guide analysis, Venezuela was generally examined as a system of systems to identify nodes, linkages, and Centers of Gravity (COGs) and determine the relationships between them.
Essay about Venezuela's Center of Gravity Analysis Once the COGs of each system were identified, the critical capabilities (CCs) of those COGs were analyzed to determine which is the most consequential to achieving U.S.
strategic objectives within Venezuela.